With the ratification of a new constitution in Afghanistan in 1964, freedom of expression was allowed and a number of independent newspapers emerged, among them the first satirical periodical, Tarjoman or Interpreter. This paper explores Tarjoman s contribution to satire in Afghanistan, a critical genre in a closed society. Tarjoman not only published satirical pieces in traditional forms, but also introduced new forms, especially political cartoons and satirical fiction. It transformed old forms for new sociopolitical needs, changing the status of satire from mere mockery to high art and making it a political tool. This was mainly due to the artistic and political skills of its founders, Nawin and Bashir. As well, satire found its closest connection with politics in modern times in Tarjoman. (c) 2014 Taylor and Francis.
Bezhan, F. (2014). Tarjoman or interpreter, the first satirical newspaper and the emergence of modern satire in Afghanistan. Media History, 20(3), 302 - 321. https://doi.org/10.1080/13688804.2014.920208