Targeting Ag to surface receptors on conventional type 1 dendritic cells can enhance induction of Ab and T cell responses. However, it is unclear to what extent the targeted receptor influences the resulting responses. In this study, we target Ag to Xcr1, Clec9A, or DEC-205, surface receptors that are expressed on conventional type 1 dendritic cells, and compare immune responses in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice in vitro and in vivo after intradermal DNA vaccination. Targeting hemagglutinin from influenza A to Clec9A induced Ab responses with higher avidity that more efficiently neutralized influenza virus compared with Xcr1 and DEC-205 targeting. In contrast, targeting Xcr1 resulted in higher IFN-γ+CD8+ T cell responses in spleen and lung and stronger cytotoxicity. Both Clec9A and Xcr1 targeting induced Th1-polarized Ab responses, although the Th1 polarization of CD4+ T cells was more pronounced after Xcr1 targeting. Targeting DEC-205 resulted in poor Ab responses in BALB/c mice and a more mixed Th response. In an influenza challenge model, targeting either Xcr1 or Clec9A induced full and long-term protection against influenza infection, whereas only partial short-term protection was obtained when targeting DEC-205. In summary, the choice of targeting receptor, even on the same dendritic cell subpopulation, may strongly influence the resulting immune response, suggesting that different targeting strategies should be considered depending on the pathogen.