Tampering with a watermarking-based image authentication scheme

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33 Citations (Scopus)


We analyse a recent image authentication scheme designed by Chang et al. [A watermarking-based image ownership and tampering authentication scheme, Pattern Recognition Lett. 27 (5) (2006) 439-446] whose first step is based on a watermarking scheme of Maniccam and Bourbakis [Lossless compression and information hiding in images, Pattern Recognition 37 (3) (2004) 475-486]. We show how the Chang et al. scheme still allows pixels to be tampered, and furthermore discuss why its ownership cannot be uniquely binding. Our results indicate that the scheme does not achieve its designed objectives of tamper detection and image ownership.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3493-3496
Number of pages4
JournalPattern Recognition
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • Digital rights management
  • Encoding
  • Image authentication
  • Information hiding
  • Ownership
  • Tampering
  • Watermarking

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