T-PA suppresses the immune response and aggravates neurological deficit in a murine model of ischemic stroke

Dominik F. Draxler, Felix Lee, Heidi Ho, Charithani B. Keragala, Robert L. Medcalf, Be'eri Niego

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

Abstract

Introduction: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a potent trigger of immunosuppression, resulting in increased infection risk. While thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is still the only pharmacological treatment for AIS, plasmin, the effector protease, has been reported to suppress dendritic cells (DCs), known for their potent antigen-presenting capacity. Accordingly, in the major group of thrombolyzed AIS patients who fail to reanalyze (>60%), t-PA might trigger unintended and potentially harmful immunosuppressive consequences instead of beneficial reperfusion. To test this hypothesis, we performed an exploratory study to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of t-PA treatment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Methods: C57Bl/6J wild-type mice and plasminogen-deficient (plg−/−) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 60 min followed by mouse t-PA treatment (0.9 mg/kg) at reperfusion. Behavioral testing was performed 23 h after occlusion, pursued by determination of blood counts and plasma cytokines at 24 h. Spleens and cervical lymph nodes (cLN) were also harvested and characterized by flow cytometry. Results: MCAo resulted in profound attenuation of immune activation, as anticipated. t-PA treatment not only worsened neurological deficit, but further reduced lymphocyte and monocyte counts in blood, enhanced plasma levels of both IL-10 and TNFα and decreased various conventional DC subsets in the spleen and cLN, consistent with enhanced immunosuppression and systemic inflammation after stroke. Many of these effects were abolished in plg−/− mice, suggesting plasmin as a key mediator of t-PA-induced immunosuppression. Conclusion: t-PA, via plasmin generation, may weaken the immune response post-stroke, potentially enhancing infection risk and impairing neurological recovery. Due to the large number of comparisons performed in this study, additional pre-clinical work is required to confirm these significant possibilities. Future studies will also need to ascertain the functional implications of t-PA-mediated immunosuppression for thrombolyzed AIS patients, particularly for those with failed recanalization.

Original languageEnglish
Article number591
Number of pages12
JournalFrontiers in Immunology
Volume10
Issue numberMAR
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 27 Mar 2019

Keywords

  • Immune system
  • Immunosuppression
  • MCAo
  • Plasminogen
  • Stroke
  • T-PA

Cite this

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title = "T-PA suppresses the immune response and aggravates neurological deficit in a murine model of ischemic stroke",
abstract = "Introduction: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a potent trigger of immunosuppression, resulting in increased infection risk. While thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is still the only pharmacological treatment for AIS, plasmin, the effector protease, has been reported to suppress dendritic cells (DCs), known for their potent antigen-presenting capacity. Accordingly, in the major group of thrombolyzed AIS patients who fail to reanalyze (>60{\%}), t-PA might trigger unintended and potentially harmful immunosuppressive consequences instead of beneficial reperfusion. To test this hypothesis, we performed an exploratory study to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of t-PA treatment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Methods: C57Bl/6J wild-type mice and plasminogen-deficient (plg−/−) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 60 min followed by mouse t-PA treatment (0.9 mg/kg) at reperfusion. Behavioral testing was performed 23 h after occlusion, pursued by determination of blood counts and plasma cytokines at 24 h. Spleens and cervical lymph nodes (cLN) were also harvested and characterized by flow cytometry. Results: MCAo resulted in profound attenuation of immune activation, as anticipated. t-PA treatment not only worsened neurological deficit, but further reduced lymphocyte and monocyte counts in blood, enhanced plasma levels of both IL-10 and TNFα and decreased various conventional DC subsets in the spleen and cLN, consistent with enhanced immunosuppression and systemic inflammation after stroke. Many of these effects were abolished in plg−/− mice, suggesting plasmin as a key mediator of t-PA-induced immunosuppression. Conclusion: t-PA, via plasmin generation, may weaken the immune response post-stroke, potentially enhancing infection risk and impairing neurological recovery. Due to the large number of comparisons performed in this study, additional pre-clinical work is required to confirm these significant possibilities. Future studies will also need to ascertain the functional implications of t-PA-mediated immunosuppression for thrombolyzed AIS patients, particularly for those with failed recanalization.",
keywords = "Immune system, Immunosuppression, MCAo, Plasminogen, Stroke, T-PA",
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T-PA suppresses the immune response and aggravates neurological deficit in a murine model of ischemic stroke. / Draxler, Dominik F.; Lee, Felix; Ho, Heidi; Keragala, Charithani B.; Medcalf, Robert L.; Niego, Be'eri.

In: Frontiers in Immunology, Vol. 10, No. MAR, 591, 27.03.2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - T-PA suppresses the immune response and aggravates neurological deficit in a murine model of ischemic stroke

AU - Draxler, Dominik F.

AU - Lee, Felix

AU - Ho, Heidi

AU - Keragala, Charithani B.

AU - Medcalf, Robert L.

AU - Niego, Be'eri

PY - 2019/3/27

Y1 - 2019/3/27

N2 - Introduction: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a potent trigger of immunosuppression, resulting in increased infection risk. While thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is still the only pharmacological treatment for AIS, plasmin, the effector protease, has been reported to suppress dendritic cells (DCs), known for their potent antigen-presenting capacity. Accordingly, in the major group of thrombolyzed AIS patients who fail to reanalyze (>60%), t-PA might trigger unintended and potentially harmful immunosuppressive consequences instead of beneficial reperfusion. To test this hypothesis, we performed an exploratory study to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of t-PA treatment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Methods: C57Bl/6J wild-type mice and plasminogen-deficient (plg−/−) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 60 min followed by mouse t-PA treatment (0.9 mg/kg) at reperfusion. Behavioral testing was performed 23 h after occlusion, pursued by determination of blood counts and plasma cytokines at 24 h. Spleens and cervical lymph nodes (cLN) were also harvested and characterized by flow cytometry. Results: MCAo resulted in profound attenuation of immune activation, as anticipated. t-PA treatment not only worsened neurological deficit, but further reduced lymphocyte and monocyte counts in blood, enhanced plasma levels of both IL-10 and TNFα and decreased various conventional DC subsets in the spleen and cLN, consistent with enhanced immunosuppression and systemic inflammation after stroke. Many of these effects were abolished in plg−/− mice, suggesting plasmin as a key mediator of t-PA-induced immunosuppression. Conclusion: t-PA, via plasmin generation, may weaken the immune response post-stroke, potentially enhancing infection risk and impairing neurological recovery. Due to the large number of comparisons performed in this study, additional pre-clinical work is required to confirm these significant possibilities. Future studies will also need to ascertain the functional implications of t-PA-mediated immunosuppression for thrombolyzed AIS patients, particularly for those with failed recanalization.

AB - Introduction: Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) is a potent trigger of immunosuppression, resulting in increased infection risk. While thrombolytic therapy with tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) is still the only pharmacological treatment for AIS, plasmin, the effector protease, has been reported to suppress dendritic cells (DCs), known for their potent antigen-presenting capacity. Accordingly, in the major group of thrombolyzed AIS patients who fail to reanalyze (>60%), t-PA might trigger unintended and potentially harmful immunosuppressive consequences instead of beneficial reperfusion. To test this hypothesis, we performed an exploratory study to investigate the immunomodulatory properties of t-PA treatment in a mouse model of ischemic stroke. Methods: C57Bl/6J wild-type mice and plasminogen-deficient (plg−/−) mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) for 60 min followed by mouse t-PA treatment (0.9 mg/kg) at reperfusion. Behavioral testing was performed 23 h after occlusion, pursued by determination of blood counts and plasma cytokines at 24 h. Spleens and cervical lymph nodes (cLN) were also harvested and characterized by flow cytometry. Results: MCAo resulted in profound attenuation of immune activation, as anticipated. t-PA treatment not only worsened neurological deficit, but further reduced lymphocyte and monocyte counts in blood, enhanced plasma levels of both IL-10 and TNFα and decreased various conventional DC subsets in the spleen and cLN, consistent with enhanced immunosuppression and systemic inflammation after stroke. Many of these effects were abolished in plg−/− mice, suggesting plasmin as a key mediator of t-PA-induced immunosuppression. Conclusion: t-PA, via plasmin generation, may weaken the immune response post-stroke, potentially enhancing infection risk and impairing neurological recovery. Due to the large number of comparisons performed in this study, additional pre-clinical work is required to confirm these significant possibilities. Future studies will also need to ascertain the functional implications of t-PA-mediated immunosuppression for thrombolyzed AIS patients, particularly for those with failed recanalization.

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KW - Immunosuppression

KW - MCAo

KW - Plasminogen

KW - Stroke

KW - T-PA

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