T follicular helper (TFH) cells in normal and dysregulated immune responses

Cecile King, Stuart G Tangye, Charles Reay Mackay

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520 Citations (Scopus)


T cell help for antibody production is a fundamental aspect of immune responses. Only recently has a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for T cell help emerged. A subset of T cells, termed T follicular helper cells (T(FH) cells), provides a helper function to B cells and represents one of the most numerous and important subsets of effector T cells in lymphoid tissues. T(FH) cells are distinguishable from Th1 and Th2 cells by several criteria, including chemokine receptor expression (CXCR5), location/migration (B cell follicles), and function (B cell help). Central to the function of CD4(+) T cells is IL-21, a helper cytokine produced by T(FH) cells that potently stimulates the differentiation of B cells into Ab-forming cells through IL-21R. Consequently, dysregulation of T(FH) cell function, and over- or under-expression of T(FH) cell-associated molecules such as ICOS or IL-21, most likely contributes to the pathogenesis of certain autoimmune diseases or immunodeficiencies.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)741 - 766
Number of pages26
JournalAnnual Review of Immunology
Publication statusPublished - 2008
Externally publishedYes

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