Systemic lupus erythematosus: When to consider and management options

Diane Apostolopoulos, Alberta Yik-Bun Hoi

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease that sometimes poses a diagnostic challenge, owing to the wide variety of clinical and immunological presentations. There can be a significant delay between onset of symptoms and the diagnosis of SLE. Appreciation of its typical presentations and diagnostic process can help general practitioners decide on the timing of specialist referral. Objective: This article describes clinical and immunological manifestations that are required in the diagnosis of SLE, and provides an overview of management options. Discussion: Some of the more common clinical and immunological manifestations of SLE are discussed and case studies to highlight the importance of accurate diagnosis are presented. Control of disease activity is crucial in alleviating symptoms, prevention of damage accrual and early mortality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-700
Number of pages6
JournalAustralian Family Physician
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • Discoid
  • Lupus erythematosus
  • Systemic

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