Glucuronosyl diacylglycerides (GlcAGroAc2) are functionally important glycolipids and membrane anchors for cell wall lipoglycans in the Corynebacteria. Here we describe the complete synthesis of distinct acyl-isoforms of GlcAGroAc2 bearing both acylation patterns of (R)-tuberculostearic acid (C19:0) and palmitic acid (C16:0) and their mass spectral characterization. Collision-induced fragmentation mass spectrometry identified characteristic fragment ions that were used to develop rules allowing the assignment of the acylation pattern as C19:0 (sn-1), C16:0 (sn-2) in the natural product from Mycobacterium smegmatis, and the structural assignment of related C18:1 (sn-1), C16:0 (sn-2) GlcAGroAc2 glycolipids from M. smegmatis and Corynebacterium glutamicum. A synthetic hydrophobic octyl glucuronoside was used to characterize the GDP-mannose-dependent mannosyltransferase MgtA from C. glutamicum that extends GlcAGroAc2. This enzyme is an Mg(2+)/Mn(2+)-dependent metalloenzyme that undergoes dramatic activation upon reduction with dithiothreitol.