Flocculation is a common technique that is widely used in many industrial applications to promote solid-liquid separation processes. The addition of a polymeric flocculant allows for the destabilization of suspended colloidal particles, and thus significantly increases their sedimentation rate. Polymeric flocculants are generally divided into four categories, which include non-ionic, cationic, anionic, and amphoteric polymers. This minireview article summarises important information on the recent design and synthesis of polymeric materials from these four categories. In addition, their properties and flocculation efficiency are also presented and discussed.