The urea-based hydrothermal (UBH) method can synthesize indium tin oxide (ITO) nanopowders with good monodispersity and size uniformity. However, the resulting formation of high pressure CO2 gas by the hydrolysis of urea during the hydrothermal process is unsafe. The pressure generated by the UBH method can be lowered by connecting the hydrothermal reactor to a vessel containing sodium hydroxide solution to quickly absorb CO2 gas. ITO nanoparticles with particle sizes of 90 ± 3 nm and 40 ± 3 nm can be produced. The size of the as-prepared nanoparticles is readily controlled by adjusting the precursor concentration. Using properly mixed nanoparticles with a volume ratio of V40 nm:V90 nm = 30:70 as the raw materials, ITO can be sintered to a high and consistent density of 99.3-99.5% of the theoretical density.
- Electronic materials
- Tin-doped indium oxide (ITO)