ETS-4 and ETS-10 titanosilicates were prepared from fly ash and anatase, as silica and titanium sources respectively, via a hydrothermal procedure for the first time. The fusion of fly ash by alkali was carried out at a relatively low temperature and the use potassium fluoride salt was avoided in the synthesis of ETS. The by-product of this process is mainly NaCl, which is a useful source material for industry. The energy efficiency and yield of the synthesis process was improved by directly recycling the final filtrate after recovering the product viz ETS-4. All the ETS materials were characterized in terms of structural morphology, thermal stability and surface/pore properties. The properties of ETS-4 prepared from fly ash by the filtrate recycling method were comparable to that from commercial sources. The results show that ETS type materials can be prepared from cheaper resources, with good purity, comparable physico-chemical properties as well as excellent adsorption properties with lower environmental impact.
Liu, L., Singh, R., Li, G., Xiao, P., Webley, P., & Zhai, Y. (2011). Synthesis and adsorption properties of titanosilicates ETS-4 and ETS-10 from fly ash. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, 340 - 345. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.08.046