Survey: An Overview of Lightweight RFID Authentication Protocols Suitable for the Maritime Internet of Things

Glen Mudra, Hui Cui, Michael N. Johnstone

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


The maritime sector employs the Internet of Things (IoT) to exploit many of its benefits to maintain a competitive advantage and keep up with the growing demands of the global economy. The maritime IoT (MIoT) not only inherits similar security threats as the general IoT, it also faces cyber threats that do not exist in the traditional IoT due to factors such as the support for long-distance communication and low-bandwidth connectivity. Therefore, the MIoT presents a significant concern for the sustainability and security of the maritime industry, as a successful cyber attack can be detrimental to national security and have a flow-on effect on the global economy. A common component of maritime IoT systems is Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) technology. It has been revealed in previous studies that current RFID authentication protocols are insecure against a number of attacks. This paper provides an overview of vulnerabilities relating to maritime RFID systems and systematically reviews lightweight RFID authentication protocols and their impacts if they were to be used in the maritime sector. Specifically, this paper investigates the capabilities of lightweight RFID authentication protocols that could be used in a maritime environment by evaluating those authentication protocols in terms of the encryption system, authentication method, and resistance to various wireless attacks.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2990
Number of pages20
JournalElectronics (Switzerland)
Issue number13
Publication statusPublished - 7 Jul 2023


  • cyber security
  • IoT
  • maritime
  • MIoT
  • RFID

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