Subgaleal hemorrhage: risk factors and outcomes

Amy Swanson, Alex Veldman, Euan Wallace, Atul Malhotra

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26 Citations (Scopus)


Subgaleal hemorrhage in the newborn is a serious adverse event often unrecognized and under-appreciated. This retrospective case series aimed to determine perinatal factors associated with subgaleal hemorrhage and subsequent neonatal outcomes. Obstetric and neonatal details of 21 infants with subgaleal hemorrhage over a 10 year period were collected. The mother was primiparous in 95 cases, 48 had a prolonged second stage (>120 mins) and 43 had prolonged rupture of membranes (>12 hours). Thirteen infants (62 ) were born by instrumental vaginal delivery. Ten infants (48 ) required resuscitation at delivery. The severity of subgaleal hemorrhage was mild in four infants (19 ), moderate in 10 (48 ) and severe in seven (33 ). Hypovolemic shock developed in 10 infants (48 ), encephalopathy in 13 (62 ) and coagulopathy was present in five infants (24 ). There were three (14 ) deaths. Long term outcomes were good in the surviving infants.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)260-263
Number of pages4
JournalActa Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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