Student perceptions of personalised learning: development and validation of a questionnaire with regional secondary students

Bruce Waldrip, Peter Cox, Craig Deed, Jeffrey Dorman, Debra Edwards, Cathleen Farrelly, Mary Keeffe, Valeria Lovejoy, Lucy Mow, Vaughan Prain, Peter Sellings, Zali Yager

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleOtherpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


This project sought to evaluate regional students’ perceptions of their readiness to learn, assessment processes, engagement, extent to which their learning is personalised and to relate these to academic efficacy, academic achievement, and student well-being. It also examined teachers’ perceptions of students’ readiness to learn, the assessment process, engagement, and the extent to which students’ learning is personalised. The sample involved students in years 7–10 from six Victorian secondary schools. An instrument Personalised Learning Environment Questionnaire (PLQ) was developed to measure students’ perceptions of the factors effecting the implementation of Personalised Learning Plans (PLPs). It employed the latest scales to assess a range of PLP indicator variables, with all scales modified for use in an Australian context, and the total number of items kept to a minimum. Only scales more sensitive to PLPs were used to minimise the length of the instrument. There were three outcome variables: academic efficacy, academic achievement, and student well-being. The PLPs were assessed through scales that assess several contributing, distinct dimensions: selfdirected learning readiness, personal achievement, goal orientation, learning environment, personalised teaching and learning initiatives, curriculum entitlement and choice, and perceptions of assessment for learning. The trail PLQ was administered to 220 students, resulting in a 19 scale questionnaire with three or four items per scale. This paper reveals good data to model fit for the majority of items and each scale had good reliability. The paper describes the analytic techniques and results, how the instrument was refined and identifies common and uncommon student perceptions based on a post hoc analysis. The main study consisted of 2,407 students from four schools in the Bendigo Education Plan. They responded to this refined 19 scale version of the PLQ that was developed from the trial PLQ. All scales had satisfactory internal consistency reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)355-370
Number of pages16
JournalLearning Environments Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Learning plans
  • Perceptions
  • Personalised learning
  • Questionnaire development
  • Regional students

Cite this

Waldrip, B., Cox, P., Deed, C., Dorman, J., Edwards, D., Farrelly, C., Keeffe, M., Lovejoy, V., Mow, L., Prain, V., Sellings, P., & Yager, Z. (2014). Student perceptions of personalised learning: development and validation of a questionnaire with regional secondary students. Learning Environments Research, 17(3), 355-370.