Student engagement with a flipped classroom teaching design affects pharmacology examination performance in a manner dependent on question type

Paul J. White, Som Naidu, Elizabeth Yuriev, Jennifer L. Short, Jacqueline E. McLaughlin, Ian C. Larson

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To investigate the relationship between student engagement with the key elements of a flipped classroom approach (preparation and attendance), their attitudes to learning, including strategy development, and their performance on two types of examination questions (knowledge recall and providing rational predictions when faced with novel scenarios). 

Methods. This study correlated student engagement with the flipped classroom and student disposition to learning with student ability to solve novel scenarios in examinations. 

Results. Students who both prepared for and attended classes performed significantly better on examination questions that required analysis of novel scenarios compared to students who did not prepare and missed classes. However, there was no difference for both groups of students on examination questions that required knowledge and comprehension. Student motivation and use of strategies correlated with higher examination scores on questions requiring novel scenario analysis. 

Conclusion. There is a synergistic relationship between class preparation and attendance. The combination of preparation and attendance was positively correlated to assessment type; the relationship was apparent for questions requiring students to solve novel problems but not for questions requiring knowledge or comprehension.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5931
Pages (from-to)10-23
Number of pages14
JournalAmerican Journal of Pharmaceutical Education
Issue number9
Publication statusPublished - 2017


  • Attendance
  • Flipped classroom
  • Novel problems
  • Preparation
  • Undergraduate education

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