Structure-activity relationships of snake toxins targeting platelet receptors, glycoprotein Ib-IX-V and glycoprotein VI.

Robert K. Andrews, Elizabeth E. Gardiner, Yang Shen, Michael C. Berndt

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Initiation of thrombus formation involves the platelet adhesion receptors, glycoprotein (GP)Ib-IX-V and GPVI, that bind von Willebrand factor (vWF) and collagen, respectively. These interactions trigger intracellular signals leading to degranulation, elevation of cytosolic Ca2+, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and "inside-out" activation of the integrin, GPIIb-IIIa (alphaIIbbeta3) that binds von Willebrand Factor (vWF) or fibrinogen and mediates platelet aggregation. GPIbalpha (the vWF-binding subunit of GPIb-IX-V) of the leucine-rich repeat protein family and GPVI of the immunoglobulin superfamily not only have a parallel physiological function, but recent studies of these receptors have revealed structure-activity relationships amongst snake venom toxins which target them. Two families of venom proteins, the C-type lectin-like proteins and metalloproteinase-disintegrins, target GPIbalpha, GPVI and/or the collagen-binding integrin, GPIa-IIa (alpha2beta1). Members of the C-type lectin family interact specifically with GPIbalpha (echicetin, alboaggregin-B, agglucetin), GPVI (convulxin, ophioluxin) or GPIa-IIa (rhodocetin), whereas related proteins accomplish dual receptor occupancy and bind GPVI and GPIbalpha (alboaggregin-A, alboluxin), or GPIbalpha and GPIa-IIa (aggretin). These latter venom proteins mimic physiological ligands, vWF or collagen, which also recognize more than one receptor. Similarly, metalloproteinase-disintegrin family proteins target GPlbalpha (mocarhagin, crotalin), GPVI (alborhagin) or GPIa-IIa (jararhagin), resulting in inhibition or induction of platelet aggregation by proteolytically dependent or independent mechanisms. Anti-thrombotics based on snake venom GPIIb-IIIa inhibitors have been investigated clinically, however analogous proteins recognizing GPIb-IX-V or GPVI are yet to be therapeutically exploited.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)143-149
Number of pages7
JournalCurrent medicinal chemistry. Cardiovascular and hematological agents
Volume1
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2003

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