Structural Studies of Thyroid Peroxidase Show the Monomer Interacting with Autoantibodies in Thyroid Autoimmune Disease

Daniel E. Williams, Sarah N. Le, David E. Hoke, Peter G. Chandler, Monika Gora, Marlena Godlewska, J. Paul Banga, Ashley M. Buckle

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Abstract

Thyroid peroxidase (TPO) is a critical membrane-bound enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of multiple thyroid hormones, and is a major autoantigen in autoimmune thyroid diseases such as destructive (Hashimoto) thyroiditis. Here we report the biophysical and structural characterization of a novel TPO construct containing only the ectodomain of TPO and lacking the propeptide. The construct was enzymatically active and able to bind the patient-derived TR1.9 autoantibody. Analytical ultracentrifugation data suggest that TPO can exist as both a monomer and a dimer. Combined with negative stain electron microscopy and molecular dynamics simulations, these data show that the TR1.9 autoantibody preferentially binds the TPO monomer, revealing conformational changes that bring together previously disparate residues into a continuous epitope. In addition to providing plausible structural models of a TPO-autoantibody complex, this study provides validated TPO constructs that will facilitate further characterization, and advances our understanding of the structural, functional, and antigenic characteristics of TPO, an autoantigen implicated in some of the most common autoimmune diseases.

Original languageEnglish
Article numberbqaa016
Number of pages16
JournalEndocrinology
Volume161
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2020

Keywords

  • autoantigen
  • Autoimmune thyroid disease
  • electron microscopy
  • thyroid peroxidase

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