The structure of a suite of high-volatile, bituminous Surat Basin, Queensland coals has been investigated by a combination of analytical probes. These included elemental analyses, pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, together with a study of their liquefaction products in both tetralin and solvent free-tin catalysed hydrogenations. Samples were gathered across a 300 m depth interval intersected by the sampling well. Most techniques revealed clear but subtle differences in structure as a function of depth. The oils produced by solvent free-tin catalysed hydrogenation, however, showed very distinct dependence with depth and the waxy content, as indicated by 1H-NMR, could be correlated with the coal seam gas content.