Structural and functional divergence of gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone from jawless fish to mammals

Satoshi Ogawa, Ishwar S Parhar

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59 Citations (Scopus)


Gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone (GnIH) was discovered as a novel hypothalamic peptide that inhibits gonadotropin release in the quail. The presence of GnIH-homologous peptides and its receptors (GnIHRs) have been demonstrated in various vertebrate species including teleosts, suggesting that the GnIH-GnIHR family is evolutionarily conserved. In avian and mammalian brain, GnIH neurons are localized in the hypothalamic nuclei and their neural projections are widely distributed. GnIH acts on the pituitary and gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons to inhibit reproductive functions by decreasing gonadotropin release and synthesis. In addition, GnIH-GnIHR signaling is regulated by various factors, such as environmental cues and stress. However, the function of fish GnIH orthologs remains inconclusive because the physiological properties of fish GnIH peptides are debatable. This review summarizes the current research progress in GnIH-GnIHR signaling and their physiological functions in vertebrates with special emphasis on non-mammalian vertebrate species.

Original languageEnglish
Article number177
Number of pages17
JournalFrontiers in Endocrinology
Issue numberOCT
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • GnRH
  • Gonadotropin
  • LPXRFa
  • Reproduction
  • Teleosts

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