Despite the well-established benefits of exercise training in people with chronic respiratory disease, there are a group of people in whom it confers minimal gains. Furthermore, there is increasing recognition of the prevalence of comorbid conditions among people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and other respiratory diseases, such as musculoskeletal disorders, which make participation in traditional exercise training programs challenging. This article focuses on several adjuncts or strategies that may be implemented by clinicians during exercise training, with the goal of optimizing the proportion of pulmonary rehabilitation participants who achieve significant and meaningful gains on program completion.
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Exercise training
- Neuromuscular electrical stimulation
- Noninvasive ventilation
- Supplemental oxygen