Strain-induced magma degassing: insights from simple-shear experiments on bubble bearing melts

Luca Caricchi, Anne Pommier, Mattia Pistone, Jonathan Castro, Alain Burgisser, Diego Perugini

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    Abstract

    Experiments have been performed to determine the effect of deformation on degassing of bubble-bearing melts. Cylindrical specimens of phonolitic composition, initial water content of 1.5 wt. and 2 vol. bubbles, have been deformed in simple-shear (torsional configuration) in an internally heated Paterson-type pressure vessel at temperatures of 798-848 K, 100-180 MPa confining pressure and different final strains. Micro-structural analyses of the samples before and after deformation have been performed in two and three dimensions using optical microscopy, a nanotomography machine and synchrotron tomography. The water content of the glasses before and after deformation has been measured using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). In samples strained up to a total of gamma similar to 2 the bubbles record accurately the total strain, whereas at higher strains (gamma similar to 10) the bubbles become very flattened and elongate in the direction of shear. The residual water content of the glasses remains constant up to a strain of gamma similar to 2 and then decreases to about 0.2 wt. at gamma similar to 10. Results show that strain enhances bubble coalescence and degassing even at low bubble volume-fractions. Noticeably, deformation produced a strongly water under-saturated melt. This suggests that degassing may occur at great depths in the volcanic conduit and may force the magma to become super-cooled early during ascent to the Earth s surface potentially contributing to the genesis of obsidian.
    Original languageEnglish
    Pages (from-to)1245 - 1257
    Number of pages13
    JournalBulletin of Volcanology
    Volume73
    Issue number9
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - 2011

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