Stochastic modelling and closure-based approaches to the representation of the effects of subgrid turbulence in large eddy simulations (LES) of turbulent fluids are reviewed. The focus is on methods in which the subgrid model is calculated self-consistently from higher resolution benchmark simulations or closures. Eddy viscosity and stochastic backscatter parametrisations are presented for two-dimensional turbulence of barotropic flows, for baroclinic quasi-geostrophic turbulence of the atmosphere and oceans, for atmospheric flows in multi-level primitive equation models and for three-dimensional boundary layer turbulence in channels. The performance of LES with these parametrisations is examined. Subgrid scale parametrisations for the complex problem of inhomogeneous flows over topography are also analysed.
|Title of host publication||Nonlinear and Stochastic Climate Dynamics|
|Editors||Christian L E Franzke, Terence J O’Kane|
|Place of Publication||Cambridge UK|
|Publisher||Cambridge University Press|
|Number of pages||35|
|Publication status||Published - 19 Jan 2017|