Stickability, transformability and transmittability: alternative, pull-out programs with schools - what the literature says about effective practice and provision for disenfranchised young people

David Zyngier, Rosalyn Black, Nathan Brubaker, Marc Pruyn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review


This paper draws on the findings of a recent and extensive literature review to examine the efficacy of pull-out education programs (alternative programs) in schools in relation to student learning, well-being, and pathways. It synthesises the research on alternative education programs and their contribution to student outcomes using three main conceptual categories: how sustainable these programs are— their stickability; how effective these programs are in achieving their stated purpose of improving and enhancing vulnerable students’ learning, well-being, and pathways — their transformability; and how these programs may be used successfully in other locations and contexts — their transmittability. It concludes with recommendations for future practice, suggesting that school systems should prioritise prevention and early intervention in providing support to vulnerable students in ways that take account of students’ own reasons for why they are disengaged from schooling.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)178 - 197
Number of pages20
JournalInternational Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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