This book provides a comprehensive review of the properties of various stem cell types, the mechanisms of their behaviors and their potential clinical application. Stem cells have a great capacity of self-renewal and differentiation. They represent new paradigms for disease treatment in the field of regenerative medicine since the day they were discovered. As stem cell research is complicated and making progress rapidly, it is important to have expertise in this field to share their views and perspectives. This book provides a wonderful platform for those who are interested in stem cells to learn from and communicate with experts. Particularly, it highlights the roles of stem cell based therapy for a variety of diseases. Furthermore, this book gives a detailed introduction to the great works related to stem cells in China. The readers could gain a profound knowledge of the state-of-art research done by scientists in the field of stem cells. Overall, this book will be a valuable reference resource for both experienced investigators pursuing stem cell research as well as those are just entering into this field. Dr. Robert Chunhua Zhao, a Cheung Kong Professor of Stem Cell Biology, is Professor of Cell Biology at the Institute of Basic Medical Sciences & School of Basic Medicine, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College (PUMC), Beijing, China. He is Director of the Center for Tissue Engineering, PUMC and Chief Scientist of the National Basic Research Program of China ("973 Program"). He also serves as Regional Editor of Stem Cells and Development.