Staining MIF in Cells for Confocal Microscopy

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Confocal microscopy is a powerful technique for immunofluorescence imaging of cells and tissues. The technique allows for detailed analysis of intracellular localization of molecules, as well as three-dimensional representation and analysis of samples, and can be used as a gateway to more advanced techniques, including FLIM-FRET and super-resolution microscopy. Relatively few studies have used confocal microscopy to study intracellular localization of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in detail. This chapter outlines basic protocols and tips for staining MIF in fixed cells for confocal analysis.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMacrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor
Subtitle of host publicationMethods and Protocols
EditorsJames Harris, Eric Morand
Place of PublicationNew York, NY
PublisherHumana Press
Number of pages7
ISBN (Electronic)9781493999361
ISBN (Print)9781493999354
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2020

Publication series

NameMethods in Molecular Biology: Springer Protocols
ISSN (Print)1064-3745
ISSN (Electronic)1940-6029


  • Antibody staining
  • Confocal
  • Fluorophores
  • Immunofluorescence

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