Stacking n-type layers: effective route towards stable, efficient and hysteresis-free planar perovskite solar cells

Xueping Liu, Tongle Bu, Jing Li, Jiang He, Tianhui Li, Jun Zhang, Wangnan Li, Zhiliang Ku, Yong Peng, Fuzhi Huang, Yi Bing Cheng, Jie Zhong

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53 Citations (Scopus)


Perovskite solar cell (PSC) has drawn widespread concern for its high efficiency and facile low-temperature solution fabrication, promising for the alternative low-cost photovoltaic energy. However, before commercializing, the problems regarding to the environmental stability and electrical hysteresis of PSCs still need to be tackled. We present a simple route by stacking n-type materials TiO2 (spray pyrolysis) and SnO2 (aqueous colloidal) for planar devices, and achieve a stable (~91% efficiency >90 days at 30%RH without encapsulation), hysteresis-free (hysteresis index 0.004) and efficient (18.03%) perovskite solar cells. Moreover, we carry out a system stability evaluation for unsealed devices under harsh conditions with intense UV illumination, heat and damp in an environmental chamber. Both TiO2 and SnO2 devices demonstrate inferior performance compare to the stacked samples in the accelerated stability tests. Photoluminescence, phase and electrical characterizations suggest that the performance enhancement is ascribed to the synergetic optimization from concealing the defective interface and promotion of carriers transfer and blocking. With the optimized n-type layers, a high efficiency of 14.39% is obtained for the 5 × 5 cm2 sub-module. These results suggest that by stacking n-type layers could enable superior overall performances to common electron transport layers (ETLs) (TiO2, SnO2 and etc.), providing facile routes for fabricating efficient PSCs with high stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)34-42
Number of pages9
JournalNano Energy
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018


  • Accelerated stability
  • Electrical hysteresis
  • Perovskite solar cells
  • Stacking n-type layers
  • TiO/SnO
  • UV irradiation

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