This study explored the association between particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 10 μm (PM10) and the cause-specific respiratory mortality. We used the ordinary kriging method to estimate the spatial characteristics of ambient PM10 at 1-km × 1-km resolution across Beijing during 2008–2009 and subsequently fit the exposure-response relationship between the estimated PM10 and the mortality due to total respiratory disease, chronic lower respiratory disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and pneumonia at the street or township area levels using the generalized additive mixed model (GAMM). We also examined the effects of age, gender, and season in the stratified analysis. The effects of ambient PM10 on the cause-specific respiratory mortality were the strongest at lag0-5 except for pneumonia, and an inter-quantile range increase in PM10 was associated with an 8.04 % (95 % CI 4.00, 12.63) increase in mortality for total respiratory disease, a 6.63 % (95 % CI 1.65, 11.86) increase for chronic lower respiratory disease, and a 5.68 % (95 % CI 0.54, 11.09) increase for COPD, respectively. Higher risks due to the PM10 exposure were observed for females and elderly individuals. Seasonal stratification analysis showed that the effects of PM10 on mortality due to pneumonia were stronger during spring and autumn. While for COPD, the effect of PM10 in winter was statistically significant (15.54 %, 95 % CI 5.64, 26.35) and the greatest among the seasons. The GAMM model evaluated stronger associations between concentration of PM10. There were significant associations between PM10 and mortality due to respiratory disease at the street or township area levels. The GAMM model using high-resolution PM10 could better capture the association between PM10 and respiratory mortality. Gender, age, and season also acted as effect modifiers for the relationship between PM10 and respiratory mortality.
- Ambient particulate matter
- Chronic lower respiratory disease
- Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
- Generalized additive mixed model
- Respiratory disease