Source, respondent, or partner? Involvement of secondary school students in participatory action research

Ben H.J. Smit, Jacobiene A. Meirink, Amanda K. Berry, Wilfried F. Admiraal

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This study addresses the nature and level of school student participation at various stages of participatory action research conducted by pre-service teachers (PSTs). PSTs’ research reports were analyzed by means of the SPinSTAR matrix, in which four levels of student participation were distinguished: Inform, Consult, Participate and Collaborate. Results show that student participation in PST research occurred mostly at the less intensive levels (Inform, Consult). Furthermore, they participated mostly in the preparatory stages of the research projects. However, most PSTs came to see their school students in a broader sense as worthwhile partners in an educational endeavor.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101544
Number of pages12
JournalInternational Journal of Educational Research
Publication statusPublished - 2020


  • Initial teacher education
  • Participatory action research
  • Partnership
  • Student participation
  • Teacher research

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