Sonar sensing

Lindsay Kleeman, Roman Kuc

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Otherpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Sonar or ultrasonic sensing uses the propagation of acoustic energy at higher frequencies than normal hearing to extract information from the environment. This chapter presents the fundamentals and physics of sonar sensing for object localization, landmark measurement and classification in robotics applications. The source of sonar artifacts is explained and how they can be dealt with. Different ultrasonic transducer technologies are outlined with their main characteristics highlighted. Sonar systems are described that range in sophistication from low-cost threshold-based ranging modules to multitransducer multipulse configurations with associated signal processing requirements capable of accurate range and bearing measurement, interference rejection, motion compensation, and target classification. Continuous-transmission frequency-modulated (CTFM) systems are introduced and their ability to improve target sensitivity in the presence of noise is discussed. Various sonar ring designs that provide rapid surrounding environmental coverage are described in conjunction with mapping results. Finally the chapter ends with a discussion of biomimetic sonar, which draws inspiration from animals such as bats and dolphins.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationSpringer Handbook of Robotics
EditorsBruno Siciliano, Oussama Khatib
Place of PublicationBerlin Germany
PublisherSpringer
Chapter30
Pages753-782
Number of pages30
Edition2nd
ISBN (Electronic)9783319325521
ISBN (Print)9783319325507
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

Keywords

  • Beam pattern
  • Interaural time difference
  • Interference rejection
  • Pulse shape
  • Sonar system

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