Solvent vapor annealing of oriented PbI2 films for improved crystallization of perovskite films in the air

Hao Xiong, Giovanni DeLuca, Yichuan Rui, Yaogang Li, Elsa Reichmanis, Qinghong Zhang, Hongzhi Wang

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells is extremely dependent on the crystallization and morphology of the perovskite film, which are affected by the deposition method. Here, we demonstrate a simple approach to form a microporous PbI2 film, with subsequent conversion to a compact, highly crystalline perovskite film. The PbI2 and corresponding perovskite films were further probed by two-dimensional X-ray diffraction. The resultant perovskite exhibited improved photovoltaic performance under ambient conditions with about 50% humidity. The PbI2 microporous structure was formed by exchanging residual DMSO with DMF vapor in the PbI2 film, which facilitated contact with the methylammonium iodide (MAI) solution. The process resulted in the formation of compact, smooth, pinhole-free perovskite films having no residual PbI2. Solar cells fabricated using this methodology exhibited power conversion efficiencies over 16% with negligible photocurrent hysteresis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)167-175
Number of pages9
JournalSolar Energy Materials and Solar Cells
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2017
Externally publishedYes


  • Ambient stability
  • CHNHPbI film
  • Large area crystallization
  • Power conversion efficiency
  • Solvent annealing

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