Solution-Processable Ultrathin Black Phosphorus as an Effective Electron Transport Layer in Organic Photovoltaics

Shenghuang Lin, Shenghua Liu, Zhibin Yang, Yanyong Li, Tsz Wai Ng, Zaiquan Xu, Qiaoliang Bao, Jianhua Hao, Chun Sing Lee, Charles Surya, Feng Yan, Shu Ping Lau

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193 Citations (Scopus)


2D van der Waals crystals, possessing excellent electronic and physical properties, have been intriguing building blocks for organic optoelectronic devices. Most of the 2D materials are served as hole transport layers in organic devices. Here,it is reported that solution exfoliated few layers black phosphorus (BP) can be served as an effective electron transport layer (ETL) in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) for the first time. The power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of the BP-incorporated OPVs can be improved to 8.18% in average with the relative enhancement of 11%. The incorporation of BP flakes with the optimum thickness of ≈10 nm can form cascaded band structure in OPVs, which can facilitate electron transport and enhance the PCEs of the devices. This study opens an avenue in using solution exfoliated BP as a highly efficient ETL for organic optoelectronics.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)864-871
Number of pages8
JournalAdvanced Functional Materials
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 9 Feb 2016


  • black phosphorus
  • electron transport layer
  • organic photovoltaics
  • solution-processable

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