Background: Preventing ischaemic stroke attracts significant focus in atrial fibrillation (AF) cases. Less is known on the association between socioeconomic factors and mortality and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with AF. Methods: Our study population included adults (n=12 283) 45 years diagnosed with AF at 75 primary care centres in Sweden 2001–07. Cox regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between the exposures educational level, marital status, neighbourhood socioeconomic status and the outcomes all-cause mortality, after adjustment for age, and comorbid cardiovascular conditions. Results: During a mean of 5.8 years (SD 2.4) of follow-up, 3954 (32.3%) patients had died; 1971 were women (35.0%) and 1983 were men (29.8%). Higher educational level was associated with a reduced mortality in fully adjusted models: HR 0.85 (95% CI 0.77–0.96) for secondary school in men, HR 0.73 (95% CI 0.60–0.88) for college/university in women, and HR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71–0.94) for college/university in men, compared to primary school. Unmarried men and divorced men had an increased risk of death, compared with married men: HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.05–1.50), and HR 1.23 (95% CI 1.07–1.42), respectively. College/university education level was also associated with lower risk of myocardial infarction in men and women, and lower risk of congestive heart failure in women. Conclusion: More attention could be paid to individuals of lower levels of formal education, and unmarried men, in order to provide timely management for AF and prevent its debilitating complications.