Socio-Ecological Approach to Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Activity and Dietary Intervention

Rashid Ansari, John Dixon, Colette Joy Browning

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter (Book)Other


The incidence of type 2 diabetes is increasing worldwide, resulting in large measure from the increasing prevalence of obesity (Yale, 2000). Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic disease and is one of the main threats to human health (Narayan, 2005). In 2003, 194 million people worldwide, ranging in age from 20 to 79 years, had diabetes. It is projected that this number will be increased by 72 to 333 million by 2025, and nearly 80 of these cases will be in the poorer industrialized countries (IDF, 2003).Type 2 diabetes is also a major public health problem in Pakistan as the middle-aged population in that country is overweight or obese, lack of physical activity, unhealthy food and eating habits exposing this population to a high risk of type 2 diabetes (Ansari, 2009). In the local context, prevalence of Type 2 diabetes in Pakistan for the year 2000 was 7.6 (5.2 million populations) and for 2030 it will increase to around 15 (13.8 million populations) and as such Pakistan is ranked 7th on diabetes prevalence list (WHO, 2004). It was found by Jafar et al (2006) that on the age-specific prevalence of overweight and obesity, more than 40 of women and 30 of men aged 35-54 years were classified as overweight or obese. Despite the high prevalence of diabetes and serious long term complications, there is still lack of established evidence-based guidelines for self-management (ADA, 2006) and translation of practice recommendations to care in Asian countries (Rayappa et al. 1998) and as well as in developed countries (Chin et al. 2000). Therefore, promoting an active lifestyle or regular exercise has become the highest public health priority in that country to overcome the onslaught of type 2 diabetes and in this context this project is very significant as it addresses this important problem of type 2 diabetes. There is a need for self-management approach for patients of type 2 diabetes and the assessment of quality of diabetes care in the community can help draw attenti
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationType 2 Diabetes
EditorsKazuko Masuo
Place of PublicationCroatia
Pages333 - 352
Number of pages20
ISBN (Print)978-953-51-1171-9
Publication statusPublished - 2013

Cite this

Ansari, R., Dixon, J., & Browning, C. J. (2013). Socio-Ecological Approach to Self-Management of Type 2 Diabetes: Physical Activity and Dietary Intervention. In K. Masuo (Ed.), Type 2 Diabetes (pp. 333 - 352). In-Tech.