Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging

Kirsty Williamson

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEncyclopaedia / Dictionary EntryResearchpeer-review

    Abstract

    Before health and risk messaging can have the best possible effect, there needs to be an understanding of what might influence health and associated risky behaviors. A wide range of elements needs to be considered, given the many possible influences on health habits and risky exposures. Since “ecology” is defined as the relationship between organisms and their environments, ecological models enable this consideration to be
    made. As a result ecological approaches have been widely used in health behavior, health planning, and health education.

    Ecological theory, with a communication focus, has also been developed, emerging specifically from the field of “information behavior.” Grounded in the work of Bronfenbrenner, on the experimental ecology of human development, the theory grew out of a study of older adults’ information and communication needs and uses, undertaken in the 1990s. The ecological model, as developed, enabled a wide range of personal and social influences on information seeking and communication to be explored with people aged 60 and older. Analysis of the impact of multilevel factors is facilitated by an ecological approach, increasing its value for the task of designing the content of health and risk messages. The “how” of designing health messaging is not addressed specifically by this approach.

    Following the study of older adults, the ecological model was broadened, modified, and applied to the study of the information and communication behavior of different community groups, involving a range of topics. The flexibility of the approach is a key strength. A study of information seeking, by women with breast cancer, indicated that several “ecological” elements, such as age, ethnicity, and stage of disease, played a part in the type of information sought and in preferences for how information was communicated. Health and risk avoidance implications emerged from a study of information seeking for online investment, providing another good example of the ways in which the model can be adapted. A range of ecological factors were shown to influence investing behavior, including level of risk taking. A study of people in the Fourth Age (the last stage of life) resulted in a further refined and extended model, as well as making a contribution to the already substantial body of accumulated gerontological knowledge.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationOxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication
    EditorsJon F. Nussbaum
    PublisherOxford University Press, USA
    Number of pages16
    DOIs
    Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

    Keywords

    • Ecological theory
    • Information seeking
    • Communication
    • Aging
    • Health
    • Risk avoidance
    • Health and risk message design processing

    Cite this

    Williamson, K. (2016). Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging. In J. F. Nussbaum (Ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication Oxford University Press, USA. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.220
    Williamson, Kirsty. / Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging. Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. editor / Jon F. Nussbaum. Oxford University Press, USA, 2016.
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    Williamson, K 2016, Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging. in JF Nussbaum (ed.), Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Oxford University Press, USA. https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.220

    Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging. / Williamson, Kirsty.

    Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. ed. / Jon F. Nussbaum. Oxford University Press, USA, 2016.

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingEncyclopaedia / Dictionary EntryResearchpeer-review

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    Williamson K. Social-ecological approaches to health and risk messaging. In Nussbaum JF, editor, Oxford Research Encyclopedia of Communication. Oxford University Press, USA. 2016 https://doi.org/10.1093/acrefore/9780190228613.013.220