SNAP (Stop Now And Plan): Helping children improve their self-control and externalizing behavior problems

Leena K. Augimeri, Margaret Walsh, Adam Donato, Andrea Blackman, Alex R. Piquero

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: The Stop Now And Plan (SNAP®) model is designed to improve self-control. Extant research however, has not considered how the program targets self-control and its relation to externalizing behaviors such as aggression and rule-breaking. Methods: This paper explores the effects of SNAP on improving self-control using the Child Behavior Checklist and Social Skills Improvement System, respectively, from a sample of 318 children. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare SSIS self-control and CBCL externalizing scores during initial and follow-up stages of treatment. Controlling for gender and age at each assessment period, a multiple linear regression was used to predict the change in externalizing behaviors based on change in self-control. Results: Analyses further supported the effectiveness of the SNAP model by demonstrating statistically significant improvements in self-control with moderate effect sizes; this in turn predicted less externalizing behaviors. Conclusions: The findings highlight the importance of self-control modification programs for improving self-control and reducing problem behavior.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)43-49
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Criminal Justice
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes


  • Aggression
  • Conduct
  • Externalizing behavior
  • Rule-breaking
  • Self-control
  • SNAP

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