Smooth and time-optimal trajectory planning for industrial manipulators along specified paths

D. Constantinescu, E. A. Croft

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

311 Citations (Scopus)


This article presents a method for determining smooth and time-optimal path constrained trajectories for robotic manipulators and investigates the performance of these trajectories both through simulations and experiments. The desired smoothness of the trajectory is imposed through limits on the torque rates. The third derivative of the path parameter with respect to time, the pseudo-jerk, is the controlled input. The limits on the actuator torques translate into state-dependent limits on the pseudo-acceleration. The time-optimal control objective is cast as an optimization problem by using cubic splines to parametrize the state space trajectory. The optimization problem is solved using the flexible tolerance method. The experimental results presented show that the planned smooth trajectories provide superior feasible time-optimal motion.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)233-249
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Robotic Systems
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2000
Externally publishedYes

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