Smoking status and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal disorders

Ahmad Esmaillzadeh, Ammar Hassanzadeh Keshteli, Marjan Tabesh, Awat Feizi, Peyman Adibi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Lifestyle and environmental factors affecting upper gastrointestinal (GI) disorders are different in developing countries than those in developed nations. Objective: This study aimed to examine the association between smoking status and upper GI disorders among a large group of the Iranian adult population. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,933 adult men in Isfahan, Iran. Smoking status was assessed by a self-administered questionnaire. Required information on GI health was collected through the use of the validated ROME III questionnaire. Individuals who reported having heartburn sometimes, often, or always in the last 3 months were considered as having epidemiologic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and those who reported having heartburn often or always were considered as having clinical GERD. Subjects who reported having functional dyspepsia (FD) symptoms (based on the ROME III criteria) sometimes, often, or always in the last 3 months were considered as having epidemiologic FD, and those who reported having these disorders often or always were considered as having clinical FD. Results: Smoking was prevalent among 7.8% of the study population. FD and GERD was prevalent among 12.6% (n = 244) and 22.3% (n = 432), respectively. Smoking was not associated with GERD by either the epidemiologic or clinical definition. Although the association between smoking and FD (epidemiologic definition) was not statistically significant, smokers had an 83% higher risk of suffering from clinical FD compared with nonsmokers after taking potential confounders into account [odds ratio (OR) = 1.83, 95% CI: 1.12-3.00; p = 0.01]. Smokers had a 57% higher risk for epidemiologic postprandial fullness (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.05-2.33; p = 0.02) and a 92% higher risk for clinical epigastric pain compared with nonsmokers (OR = 1.92, 95% CI: 1.02-3.62; p = 0.04). We found no significant association between smoking and severity of upper GI disorders. Conclusion: This large population-based study indicated that smoking was not associated with GERD and epidemiologic FD. However, smoking was significantly associated with clinical FD, postprandial fullness, and epigastric pain.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)282-290
Number of pages9
JournalFood Digestion
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Dyspepsia
  • Early satiation
  • Epigastric pain
  • Gastrointestinal health
  • Postprandial fullness
  • Reflux
  • Smoking

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