Smoking and nicotine dependence in singapore: Findings from a cross-sectional epidemiological study

Louisa Picco, Mythily Subramaniam, Edimansyah Abdin, Janhavi A. Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong

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34 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Introduction: Smoking is one of the leading preventable causes of death throughout the world and can lead to nicotine dependence, particularly when initiated at a young age. This paper describes the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence in the adult Singapore resident population, whilst also exploring rates among the major ethnic groups (Chinese, Malay and Indian), different education levels and those with chronic psychiatric and physical comorbidities. Material and Methods: The Singapore Mental Health Study (SMHS) is a cross-sectional epidemiological study that was conducted between December 2009 and December 2010. Information on smoking status was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview version 3.0 (CIDI 3.0) and the Fagerstrom Test for Nicotine Dependence measured nicotine dependence. Socio-demographic information was also collected. Results: In total, 6616 respondents participated in the SMHS giving a response rate of 75.9%. We found that 16% of the population were current smokers and 4.5% had nicotine dependence. Current smokers were more likely to be younger (18 to 34 years old), males, Malay and have lower education, whilst males had a 4.6 times higher risk of nicotine dependence to that of females. The prevalence of nicotine dependence was also higher in those with alcohol abuse and those experiencing chronic pain. Conclusion: The results from this study highlight the important differences in the prevalence of smoking and nicotine dependence among different age groups, gender and ethnicity in Singapore and are important for developing future health policies and targeted preventive strategies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)325-334
Number of pages10
JournalAnnals of the Academy of Medicine Singapore
Volume41
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - 1 Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Ethnicity
  • Gender
  • Population
  • Prevalence

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