Background: Smoking and alcohol increase risk for colorectal malignancies. However, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogenic disease and associations with the molecular pathological pathways are unclear. Methods: This population-based case–control study includes 2444 cases with first-diagnosis CRC and 2475 controls. Tumour tissue was analysed for MSI (microsatellite instability), CIMP (CpG island methylator phenotype), BRAF (B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine kinase gene) and KRAS (Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homologue gene) mutations. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated for associations between alcohol and smoking and CRC molecular subtypes and pathways. Results: Current smoking showed higher ORs for MSI-high (OR = 2.79, 95% CI: 1.86–4.18) compared to MSS (OR = 1.41, 1.14–1.75, p-heterogeneity (p-het) = 0.001), BRAF-mutated (mut) (OR = 2.40, 1.41–4.07) compared to BRAF-wild type (wt) (OR = 1.52, 1.24–1.88, p-het = 0.074), KRAS-wt (OR = 1.70, 1.36–2.13) compared to KRAS-mut (OR = 1.26, 0.95–1.68, p-het = 0.039) and CIMP-high (OR = 2.01, 1.40–2.88) compared to CIMP-low/negative CRC (OR = 1.50, 1.22–1.85, p-het=0.101). Current smoking seemed more strongly associated with sessile serrated pathway (CIMP-high + BRAF-mut; OR = 2.39, 1.27–4.52) than with traditional pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + BRAF-wt; OR = 1.50, 1.16–1.94) and no association was observed with alternate pathway CRC (MSS + CIMP-low/negative + KRAS-wt; OR = 1.08, 0.77–1.43). No heterogeneity was observed in alcohol consumption association by molecular subtypes. Conclusions: In this large case–control study, smoking was more strongly associated with MSI-high and KRAS-wt CRC and with cases showing features of the sessile serrated pathway. Association patterns were less clear for alcohol consumption.