Sleep and Alcohol Use Patterns During Federal Holidays and Daylight Saving Time Transitions in the United States

Rachel M. Heacock, Emily R. Capodilupo, Mark E. Czeisler, Matthew D. Weaver, Charles A. Czeisler, Mark E. Howard, Shantha M.W. Rajaratnam

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


We conducted a retrospective observational study using remote wearable and mobile application data to evaluate whether US public holidays or Daylight Saving Time transitions were associated with significant changes in sleep behaviors, including sleep duration, sleep onset and offset, and the consistency of sleep timing, as well as changes in the point prevalence of alcohol use. These metrics were analyzed using objective, high resolution sleep-wake data (10,350,760 sleep episodes) and 5,777,008 survey responses of 24,250 US subscribers (74.5% male; mean age of 37.6 ± 9.8 years) to the wrist-worn biometric device platform, WHOOP (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), who were active users during 1 May 2020, through 1 May 2021. Compared to baseline, statistically significant differences in sleep and alcohol measures were found on most DST transitions, US public holidays, and their eves. For example, New Year’s Eve corresponded with a sleep consistency decrease of 13.8 ± 0.3%, a sleep onset delay of 88.9 ± 3.2 min (00:01 vs. 22:33 baseline) later, a sleep offset delay of 78.1 ± 3.1 min (07:56 vs. 06:39), and an increase in the prevalence of alcohol consumption, with more than twice as many participants having reported alcohol consumption [+138.0% ± 6.7 (74.2% vs. 31.2%)] compared to baseline. In this analysis of a non-random sample of mostly male subscribers conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of US public holidays and holiday eves were associated with sample-level increases in sleep duration, decreases in sleep consistency, later sleep onset and offset, and increases in the prevalence of alcohol consumption. Future work would be warranted to explore the generalizability of these findings and their public health implications, including in more representative samples and over longer time intervals.

Original languageEnglish
Article number884154
Number of pages13
JournalFrontiers in Physiology
Publication statusPublished - 11 Jul 2022


  • daylight saving time
  • epidemiology
  • holidays
  • sleep consistency
  • sleep duration
  • sleep timing
  • substance use
  • wearable devices

Cite this