SLBS-6: Validation of a Short Form of the Servant Leadership Behavior Scale

Sen Sendjaya, Nathan Eva, Ivan Butar Butar, Mulyadi Robin, Samantha Castles

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84 Citations (Scopus)


This paper reports the validation of a 6-item short form of the original 35-item Servant Leadership Behavior Scale, a widely used measure of servant leadership behavior. The holistic perspective of servant leadership and the inclusion of spirituality are two distinctive features of the SLBS relative to other servant leadership measures. Psychometric properties of the SLBS-6 were examined on the basis of seven studies. In the preliminary scale development, the factor structure of the new measure was tested using a combination of all samples (n = 3072). The subsequent seven studies were aimed at building further its construct validity relative to observed variables within the servant leadership nomological network in direct, mediating, and moderating relationships. Analyses of all datasets using MPlus with maximum-likelihood estimation provided support for the 6-item structure and demonstrated its internal consistency reliability, criterion-related validity, and construct validity. As such, the study presents the SLBS-6 as the shortest holistic measure of servant leadership to date that can be used with confidence for research and training purposes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)941-956
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Business Ethics
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 10 Jun 2019


  • Leadership
  • Servant leadership
  • Leadership measure
  • Scale development
  • Scale validation

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