Simultaneous loading of (−)-epigallocatechin gallate and ferulic acid in chitosan-based nanoparticles as effective antioxidant and potential skin-whitening agents

Guanghui Li, Yee Ying Lee, Xuanxuan Lu, Jing Chen, Ning Liu, Chaoying Qiu, Yong Wang

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Chitosan (CS) based nanoparticles simultaneously loaded with (−)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and ferulic acid (FA) were fabricated via ionic gelation method modified by sodium tripolyphosphate and genipin (G-CS-EGCG-FA NPs). The particle size, morphology, entrapment efficiency, rheological properties, antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of NPs were investigated. The G-CS-EGCG-FA NPs exhibited irregular ellipsoidal shape with average diameter of 412.3 nm and high DPPH and ABTS·+ scavenging ability. The entrapment efficiency of EGCG and FA in NPs was 46.0 ± 1.3 % and 46.8 ± 1.6 %, respectively. CS-based NPs show no toxic effects on NIH 3 T3 cells and B16-F10 melanoma cells with concentration <200 μg/mL and 25 μg/mL, respectively and the cell viability ranged from 100 % to 118 %. Meanwhile, the oxidative repaired capacity of G-CS-EGCG-FA NPs (200 μg/mL) in H2O2-induced cells was over 100 %, higher than that of the same dose of free EGCG or FA. Moreover, the tyrosinase inhibition activity of G-CS-EGCG-FA NPs (25 μg/mL) (84.6 %) was more potent than that of free EGCG (55.3 %), free FA (47.1 %) and kojic acid, indicating the good skin repairing and whitening ability of G-CS-EGCG-FA NPs. Given these results, this research provides new insights for designing novel particles loaded with dual bioactive agents that possess synergistic benefits.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)333-345
Number of pages13
JournalInternational Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Publication statusPublished - 31 Oct 2022


  • Chitosan
  • Nanoparticles
  • Tyrosinase inhibition activity

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