Simulation of spray drying on Piper betle Linn extracts using computational fluid dynamics

S. Cher Pin, W. Rashmi, M. Khalid, C. H. Chong, M. W. Woo, L. H. Tee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The drying of Piper betle Linn (betel) leaf extract using a lab scale spray dryer was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). Three different turbulent models (standard k-ε, RNG k-ε and realizable k-ε) were used in the present study to determine the most suitable model for predicting the flow profile. Parametric studies were also conducted to evaluate the effect of process variables on the final moisture content. Four different initial droplet sizes (36, 79, 123 and 166 μm) were tested with four sets of combination of hot air temperature (140 and 160°C) and feed rate (4, 9.5 and 15 ml/min). It was found that standard k-ε is the most suitable turbulent model to predict the flow behaviour Moreover, the lowest final moisture content present in samples was obtained at 140°C and a feed rate of 15.0 ml/min.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1089-1096
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Food Research Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2014


  • Betel leaf extract
  • CFD
  • k-ε turbulent model
  • Spray drying

Cite this