Simulation in paediatric urology and surgery, part 2: An overview of simulation modalities and their applications

R. M. Nataraja, N. Webb, P. J. Lopez

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleOtherpeer-review

17 Citations (Scopus)


Surgical training has changed radically in the last few decades. The traditional Halstedian model of time-bound apprenticeship has been replaced with competency-based training. In our previous article, we presented an overview of learning theory relevant to clinical teaching; a summary for the busy paediatric surgeon and urologist. We introduced the concepts underpinning current changes in surgical education and training. In this next article, we give an overview of the various modalities of surgical simulation, the educational principles that underlie them, and potential applications in clinical practice. These modalities include; open surgical models and trainers, laparoscopic bench trainers, virtual reality trainers, simulated patients and role-play, hybrid simulation, scenario-based simulation, distributed simulation, virtual reality, and online simulation. Specific examples of technology that may be used for these modalities are included but this is not a comprehensive review of all available products.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)125-131
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Pediatric Urology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2018


  • Paediatric surgery simulation
  • Paediatric urology simulation
  • Simulation based medical education (SBME)
  • Surgical simulation
  • Urology simulation

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