Simplifying the evaluation of graphene modified electrode performance using rotating disk electrode voltammetry

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Abstract

Graphene modified electrodes have been fabricated by electrodeposition from an aqueous graphene oxide solution onto conducting Pt, Au, glassy carbon, and indium tin dioxide substrates. Detailed investigations of the electrochemistry of the [Ru(NH3)(6)](3+)/(2+) and [Fe(CN)(6)](3-)/(4-) and hydroquinone and uric acid oxidation processes have been undertaken at glassy carbon and graphene modified glassy carbon electrodes using transient cyclic voltammetry at a stationary electrode and near steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode. Comparisons of the data with simulation suggest that the transient voltammetric characteristics at graphene modified electrodes contain a significant contribution from thin layer and surface confined processes. Consequently, interpretations based solely on mass transport by semi-infinite linear diffusion may result in incorrect conclusions on the activity of the graphene modified electrode. In contrast, steady-state voltammetry at a rotating disk electrode affords a much simpler method for the evaluation of the performance of graphene modified electrode since the relative importance of the thin layer and surface confined processes are substantially diminished and mass transport is dominated by convection. Application of the rotated electrode approach with carbon nanotube modified electrodes also should lead to simplification of data analysis in this environment.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5275 - 5285
Number of pages11
JournalLangmuir
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2012

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