SimC7 is a novel NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase essential for the antibiotic activity of the DNA gyrase inhibitor simocyclinone

Martin Schäfer, Tung B K Le, Stephen J. Hearnshaw, Anthony Maxwell, Gregory L. Challis, Barrie Wilkinson, Mark J. Buttner

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9 Citations (Scopus)


Simocyclinone D8 (SD8) is a potent DNA gyrase inhibitor produced by Streptomyces antibioticus Tü6040. The simocyclinone (sim) biosynthetic gene cluster has been sequenced and a hypothetical biosynthetic pathway has been proposed. The tetraene linker in SD8 was suggested to be the product of a modular type I polyketide synthase working in trans with two monofunctional enzymes. One of these monofunctional enzymes, SimC7, was proposed to supply a dehydratase activity missing from two modules of the polyketide synthase. In this study, we report the function of SimC7. We isolated the entire ~ 72-kb sim cluster on a single phage artificial chromosome clone and produced simocyclinone heterologously in a Streptomyces coelicolor strain engineered for improved antibiotic production. Deletion of simC7 resulted in the production of a novel simocyclinone, 7-oxo-SD8, which unexpectedly carried a normal tetraene linker but was altered in the angucyclinone moiety. We demonstrate that SimC7 is an NAD(P)H-dependent ketoreductase that catalyzes the conversion of 7-oxo-SD8 into SD8. 7-oxo-SD8 was essentially inactive as a DNA gyrase inhibitor, and the reduction of the keto group by SimC7 was shown to be crucial for high-affinity binding to the enzyme. Thus, SimC7 is an angucyclinone ketoreductase that is essential for the biological activity of simocyclinone.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2192-2204
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Molecular Biology
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 19 Jun 2015
Externally publishedYes

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