The methylation of histone lysine residues modifies chromatin conformation and regulates the expression of genes implicated in cell metabolism. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a flavin-dependent monoamine oxidase that can demethylate mono- and dimethylated histone lysines 4 and 9 (H3K4 and H3K9). The removal of methyl groups from the lysine residues of histone and non-histone proteins was found to be an important regulatory factor of cell proliferation. However, its role has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we assessed LSD1-mediated cell cycle progression using a human endothelial cell model. The short hairpin RNA knockdown of LSD1 inhibits the G2/M phase of cell cycle progression by checkpoint kinase 1 (Chk1) phosphorylation (S137). We observed elevated DNA damage, which was consistent with the increased detection of double-strand breaks as well as purines and pyrimidines oxidation, which accompanied the activation of ATR/ATRIP signaling by H2AXS139 phosphorylation. The irreversible pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 by 2-phenylcyclopropylamine (2-PCPA) inactivated its enzymatic activity, causing significant changes in heterochromatin and euchromatin conformation assessed by chromatin assembly factor 1 subunit A (CAF1A) and heterochromatin protein 1 isoform α and γ (HP1α/γ) immunofluorescence analysis. We conclude that the knockdown of LSD1 in endothelial cells leads to increased HP1-positive chromatin, the stimulation of DNA repair processes, and the dysregulation of proliferation machinery.
- cell cycle
- chromatin remodeling
- DNA damage and repair
- histone posttranslational modifications