Application of a mild hydrodynamic shear stress to Dicytostelium discoideum cells, unable to detach cells passively from the substrate, triggers a cellular response consisting of steady membrane peeling at the rear edge of the cell and periodic cell contact extensions at its front edge. Both processes require an active actin cytoskeleton. The cell movement induced by the hydrodynamic forces is very similar to amoeboid cell motion during chemotaxis, as for its kinematic parameters and for the involvement of phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)-trisphosphate internal gradient to maintain cell polarity. Inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinases by LY294002 randomizes the orientation of cell movement with respect to the flow without modifying cell speed. Two independent signaling pathways are, therefore, induced in D. discoideum in response to external forces. The first increases the frequency of pseudopodium extension, whereas the second redirects the actin cytoskeleton polymerization machinery to the edge opposite to the stressed side of the cell.
- Dictyostelium discoideum
- Hydrodynamic flow