In TEM, a typical goal consists of making a small electron probe in the sample plane in order to obtain high spatial resolution in scanning transmission electron microscopy. In order to do so, the phase of the electron wave is corrected to resemble a spherical wave compensating for aberrations in the magnetic lenses. In this contribution, we discuss the advantage of changing the phase of an electron wave in a specific way in order to obtain fundamentally different electron probes opening up new applications in the (S)TEM. We focus on electron vortex states as a specific family of waves with an azimuthal phase signature and discuss their properties, production and applications. The concepts presented here are rather general and also different classes of probes can be obtained in a similar fashion, showing that electron probes can be tuned to optimize a specific measurement or interaction.
- Angular momentum
- Magnetic properties
- Topological Charge
- Transmission Electron Microscopy
- Vortex beam