Sex-specific differences in hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females. Biological age also contributes to sexual dimorphism, as premenopausal women experience a higher degree of cardioprotection than men of similar age. Furthermore, sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone as well as sex chromosome complement likely contribute to sex differences in BP and CVD. At the cellular level, differences in cell senescence pathways may contribute to increased longevity in women and may also limit organ damage caused by hypertension. In addition, many lifestyle and environmental factors-such as smoking, alcohol consumption and diet-may influence BP and CVD in a sex-specific manner. Evidence suggests that cardioprotection in women is lost under conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment strategies for hypertension and CVD that are tailored according to sex could lead to improved outcomes for affected patients.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)185-201
Number of pages17
JournalNature Reviews Nephrology
Volume14
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2018

Keywords

  • ageing
  • hormones
  • hypertension
  • kidney

Cite this

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title = "Sex-specific differences in hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease",
abstract = "Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females. Biological age also contributes to sexual dimorphism, as premenopausal women experience a higher degree of cardioprotection than men of similar age. Furthermore, sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone as well as sex chromosome complement likely contribute to sex differences in BP and CVD. At the cellular level, differences in cell senescence pathways may contribute to increased longevity in women and may also limit organ damage caused by hypertension. In addition, many lifestyle and environmental factors-such as smoking, alcohol consumption and diet-may influence BP and CVD in a sex-specific manner. Evidence suggests that cardioprotection in women is lost under conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment strategies for hypertension and CVD that are tailored according to sex could lead to improved outcomes for affected patients.",
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Sex-specific differences in hypertension and associated cardiovascular disease. / Mirabito Colafella, Katrina M. ; Denton, Katherine M.

In: Nature Reviews Nephrology, Vol. 14, No. 3, 01.03.2018, p. 185-201.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview ArticleResearchpeer-review

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N2 - Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females. Biological age also contributes to sexual dimorphism, as premenopausal women experience a higher degree of cardioprotection than men of similar age. Furthermore, sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone as well as sex chromosome complement likely contribute to sex differences in BP and CVD. At the cellular level, differences in cell senescence pathways may contribute to increased longevity in women and may also limit organ damage caused by hypertension. In addition, many lifestyle and environmental factors-such as smoking, alcohol consumption and diet-may influence BP and CVD in a sex-specific manner. Evidence suggests that cardioprotection in women is lost under conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment strategies for hypertension and CVD that are tailored according to sex could lead to improved outcomes for affected patients.

AB - Although intrinsic mechanisms that regulate arterial blood pressure (BP) are similar in men and women, marked variations exist at the molecular, cellular and tissue levels. These physiological disparities between the sexes likely contribute to differences in disease onset, susceptibility, prevalence and treatment responses. Key systems that are important in the development of hypertension and cardiovascular disease (CVD), including the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and the immune system, are differentially activated in males and females. Biological age also contributes to sexual dimorphism, as premenopausal women experience a higher degree of cardioprotection than men of similar age. Furthermore, sex hormones such as oestrogen and testosterone as well as sex chromosome complement likely contribute to sex differences in BP and CVD. At the cellular level, differences in cell senescence pathways may contribute to increased longevity in women and may also limit organ damage caused by hypertension. In addition, many lifestyle and environmental factors-such as smoking, alcohol consumption and diet-may influence BP and CVD in a sex-specific manner. Evidence suggests that cardioprotection in women is lost under conditions of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Treatment strategies for hypertension and CVD that are tailored according to sex could lead to improved outcomes for affected patients.

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