Sex-specific associations between markers of arterial stiffness and bone mineral density in Indian men and women

Shasheni Ranatunga, Bharati Kulkarni, Sanjay Kinra, Peter R. Ebeling, Ayse Zengin

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleResearchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) share common risk factors, yet both are usually underdiagnosed in the absence of major complications. We investigated associations between arterial stiffness, cardiac workload, carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in Indian adults. Methods: Men and women aged >45 years from the Andhra Pradesh Children and Parents Study (APCAPS) were included for cross-sectional analysis (521 women and 696 men). Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measured aBMD at the whole body, total hip and lumbar spine. Supine blood pressure and heart rate were measured and used to calculate rate pressure product and pulse pressure; augmentation index, pulse wave velocity and CIMT were measured. Sex-interactions were tested (denoted as p-int); adjustments were made for confounders. Data were expressed as SD differences with 95 % confidence intervals. Results: There were significant negative associations between pulse pressure and aBMD at all sites in women only. In unadjusted analyses, for every 1SD increase in pulse pressure, women had greater negative differences in aBMD at the whole body (−0.13 vs 0.007), total hip (−0.20 vs −0.05) and lumbar spine (−0.12 vs 0.05) compared with men. After adjustments, sex differences remained. Similar negative associations were seen between pulse wave velocity and augmentation index with aBMD in women only. There were no sex differences between CIMT and rate pressure product with aBMD. Conclusions: Markers of arterial stiffness are associated with poorer bone health in Indian women, but not in men. There is a need to identify the shared risk factors and markers of arterial stiffness and poor bone health to detect those who require co-management of these diseases to prevent cardiovascular events and fractures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116686
Number of pages8
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Aging
  • Cardiovascular
  • Epidemiology
  • India
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Public health

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